WORLD`s analysis assessed the legislation of the 193 UN Member States regarding work that may be hazardous, work that interferes with children`s education, and work that is detrimental to their healthy development. Other results: Despite its rapid economic growth, China has seen a significant increase in child labor risks over the past year, ranking 20th from 53rd last year. There are reports that children from the age of 9 make shoes in Turkey. Boys and girls, many of whom are part of the Syrian refugee community, work in this sector. According to international organizations, NGOs and the media, there is credible evidence that the use of child labor is common in footwear production, even in large production areas such as Gaziantep and Istanbul. Children work long hours, with some reports reporting up to 12 hours a day, 6 days a week. Due to long working hours, many children working in this sector cannot go to school. Some children working in this sector use hazardous chemicals, machinery and materials. The visualization presented here is by Schultz and Strauss (2008) and shows this relationship using data from UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (2000 and 2001). It shows school attendance rates for children aged 10 to 14 relative to the total number of hours worked in the previous week (by type of work) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs marked and displayed in lighter tones). As mentioned above, child labour is particularly problematic as it hinders their development, particularly through interventions in formal education. Since time is a scarce resource, the extent to which children`s employment is related to school attendance depends on the type and number of hours worked.
There are reports of children being forced to harvest Brazil nuts in Bolivia. Forced child labor in Brazil nut production is particularly well known in the Amazon, and migrant workers are particularly vulnerable. According to international organizations, NGOs and the U.S. State Department, many children are forced to work with their families, often in conditions of debt bondage. Often, entire families, including children, receive an advance payment to work in the harvest and then incur further debts during the harvest. Families are forbidden to leave the country, even if the harvest is over until their debts are settled. Sometimes identity papers and salaries are withheld to restrict freedom of movement. It is estimated that about 14 million children are directly involved in the production of goods, including: There is no place for child labour in society.
It robs children of their future and keeps families in poverty. According to the above definition, whether or not a particular job qualifies as “child labour” depends on the details of the actual context – the age of the child, the number of hours worked and the nature of the tasks performed. Hilowitz`s (2004)12 graph shows a schematic classification of child labour (shaded region) according to age and type of work. There is evidence that children between the ages of 5 and 17 make baked goods in El Salvador. According to the Government of El Salvador`s 2015 Multipurpose Household Survey, a child who works is considered dangerously involved in child labor if he or she performs hazardous work under national law. The survey estimates that 123,259 children between the ages of 5 and 17 in El Salvador work dangerously, including using hazardous tools, carrying heavy loads, working with chemicals, working long hours or at night, and being exposed to dust, smoke or extreme heat or humidity. Approximately 9,737 of these children are engaged in hazardous child labour in the production of bakery products. The publication of this survey demonstrates the commitment of the Government of El Salvador to the fight against child labour and its recognition that data collection is essential for the design and implementation of sound policies and programmes. There is evidence that children between the ages of 5 and 17 are involved in cattle ranching in Mexico. According to an analysis by Mexico`s National Survey of Occupation and Employment – Child Labour Module 2017, approximately 18,501 children work in animal husbandry. Under Mexican national legislation, agricultural activities, including animal husbandry, are considered hazardous occupations and are prohibited for children under the age of 18.
The publication of this survey demonstrates the Mexican government`s commitment to combating child labour and its recognition that data collection is essential to the design and implementation of sound policies and programmes. There are reports of children between the ages of 5 and 17 collecting mica from abandoned mines, mainly as part of illegal mining operations in India. Children are mainly found in the main mica-producing states of Bihar, Jharkhand and Rajasthan, often instead of going to school. NGOs and media have documented hundreds of children working in mica in these states. The children`s tasks would include breaking rocks to extract minerals, carrying loads of stones, and sorting and separating mica from other mined minerals. According to media reports and interviews, inhalation of mica dust by children has contributed to respiratory illnesses. Children would also be exposed to other health and safety risks that result in injuries such as scorpion bites and fractures or, in some cases, even death in poorly maintained and unregulated mine shafts. Many studies distinguish between “working children” and “working children”, using the terms “working children”, “working children” and “working children” interchangeably. In such cases, the former (“Children in Child Labour”) are considered a subset of the latter (“Working Children” or one of the interchangeable terms above). As noted above, working children include those in the worst forms of child labour and children under the minimum age, excluding children performing permitted light work, where “permitted light work” is defined as any non-hazardous work of children (aged 12-14) of less than 14 hours during the reference week (for details, see ILO-IPEC, Diallo, Y., et al.
(2013))).15 The second visualization presents global trends using estimates in two age groups: 5-14 years and 15-17 years. The source of the data is the same as above (ILO report Marking progress in the fight against child labour 2013). Unfortunately, these global estimates are not disaggregated by sex and are not available for other age groups. However, this trend is consistent with the above observation: child labour has decreased in recent years. Countries with high poverty rates perform poorly on the index because children need to supplement their family income, the report says, but economically important countries such as China, India, Russia and Brazil also pose extreme risks as child labor laws are often poorly enforced. School-age children are reported to be harvesting sand in Uganda, particularly in the central, eastern and north-eastern regions of the country. According to a Ugandan government official, sand harvesting is one of the main occupations where child labourers work. Children collect sand for hours, which prevents them from going to school. Children dive underwater, collect sand and transport it to riverside boats. This work exposes children to serious health and safety risks, including drowning, injury and waterborne illness.
There are reports that Zimbabwean children produce tobacco. According to Human Rights Watch and local media, there are numerous cases of children working on tobacco farms in Zimbabwe`s northeastern provinces, including Mashonaland West, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, and Manicaland. There are reports of an increasing number of children working on small, non-commercial farms. In many cases, children drop out of school to work on tobacco plantations. Children perform hazardous forms of work, including mixing, handling and spraying pesticides. Children also experience adverse health effects associated with exposure to nicotine that enters their bodies through their skin when they handle tobacco.